Day 1 :
Professor & Head, Microbiology Department, PIMSR, Parul University, Vadodara. ,India
Professor & Head, Microbiology Department, PIMSR, Parul University, Vadodara.
Individuals with HIV infection are at increased risk for tuberculosis (TB) and other respiratory tract infections. Infection with TB enhances replication of HIV and may accelerate the progression of HIV to AIDS, with rapid fall in CD4 count. CD4 count fall had been observed both in HIV positive as well as HIV negative patients of TB. Aim: Emphasizing the pivotal role of cART and ATT in TB/HIV patients in maintaining their immune system effective (by maintaining CD4 count) and thus decreasing MDR/XDR, morbidity and mortality among these patients. Calculating average mean CD4 count for Indian scenario in cART era. Material and methods: All the 961 HIV infected patients early morning sputa were screened for AFB and few of the samples were even cultured on LJ medium. All patients’ CD4 count were also evaluated by flow cytomerty method within one week of sputa collection. Seven other published work of HIV/TB patients were analyzed in relation to CD4 count. Moreover other five published research on CD4 in TB+ve/HIV-ve patients were also discussed in this article. Results: Out of 961 patients with HIV/RTI , 308(32.06%) found positive for tuberculosis with mean CD4 count found to be 198.5 and 105.9 cells/μl for pulmonary TB and for extra-pulmonary TB respectively in present study. The average mean CD4 count from seven research studies from India were found to be 169.75 and 145.3 cells/μl for pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB respectively, in TB/HIV co-infected patients on cART. Brenda et al.(1997) and other four found that in advanced/sever TB but HIV-negative patients mean CD4 count found to be 341+116 .Conclusion: HAART and ATT both are equally important in maintaining immune system(maintaining CD4 count) of TB/HIV co-infected patients. In India, clinician should more suspect for TB at around mean CD4 count of 169.75 even if found negative by AFB staining for, but should be confirmed by culture on LJ medium, PCR or by any other Latest technique in HIV-positive patients.
cART= combined Antiretroviral Treatment
ATT= anti Tubercle Treatment
Key Words:- Tuberculosis, HIV, CD4, ART
Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
I am Asif Shahriar and I am BSc final year student from Department of Microbiology at Stamford University, Bangladesh
I am a microbiologist with extensive laboratory experience, particularly in the
field of Clinical Microbiology the identification and function of model
organisms. I have published 2 Research Articles in reputed journals. I am the First Author and Md. Emam Hasan is the 2nd Author. We worked hard to finish the Project together. And Talha Bin Emran is our corresponding author, he has helped us to the entire project.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infection encountered worldntswide and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. are the common bacterial pathogens that cause UTIs. The bacterial pathogens show resistance to most prescribed antibiotics to combat a variety of UTI infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate the biofilm forming ability, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and extended spectrum β lactamase (ESBL) production of seven uropathogenic isolates comprising both Escherichia coli and Klebsiella. pneumoniae. The strains were found to be multidrug resistant. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles obtained in this study showed that the most active drug gentamicin, amikacin and imipenem (100% sensitivity) followed by Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (85% sensitivity), Co-Trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin (57% sensitivity) ceftazidime and kanamycin (50% sensitivity). All the isolates showed resistance to amoxicillin followed by ceftriaxone and cefotaxime (71% resistance). The scenario gets more complicated due to production of ESBL by five isolates (three E.coli isolates, and two K. pneumoniae). The isolates were also able to form biofilm as tested on congo red agar medium and by microtiter plate assay. The findings of the study indicate that the emergence and rapid spread of such multidrug resistant pathogens are of great concern. Early detection of ESBL producing pathogen is of paramount clinical importance, therefore strict infection control practices as well as therapeutic guidance for confirmed infection can be rapidly initiated.